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Despite Bahrain’s limited geographical area, it hosts a notable amount of genetic diversity, which includes the endemic Arabian horse breed and the endemic Arabian camel along with various species of native palm and fruit trees.

There is not much information available on the status of genetic diversity in Bahrain however; the fourth national report to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) briefly describes this diversity. The report indicates that there are over a 100 types of date palm trees in Bahrain and that Bahrain is considered to be an important regional center for breeding endemic Arabian horse traits, which is of both historical and cultural importance to the island.

Moreover, although Bahrain is yet to establish its own gene bank in terms of seeds for plant conservation, the country has been working on conserving its endemic plants through planting and growing native plants in various protected areas such as Al Areen Nature Reserve and Budaiya Botanical Garden.